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NLM Classification 2016: Worldwide source of medical library classification


History of Medicine. Medical Miscellany

  • Classify history of a particular subject with the subject, e.g., History of surgery WO 11.


  WZ 1-40 Reference Works. General Works
  WZ 51-80 History by Period, Locality, etc.
  WZ 100-150 Biography
  WZ 220-225 Manuscripts
  WZ 230-260 Early Printed Books
  WZ 270 Americana
  WZ 290-294 Modern Versions and Commentaries of Early Works
  WZ 305-350 Miscellany Relating to Medicine

Reference Works. General Works

WZ 1
Organizations. Societies (General or not elsewhere classified) (Cutter from name of organization or society) (Table G)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Includes membership lists issued serially or separately. Classify directories in WZ 22. Classify annual reports, journals, etc., in W1. For academies and institutes, see WZ 23.
Collected works (General)
WZ 5
By several authors
WZ 7
By individual authors
WZ 9
Addresses. Essays. Lectures (General)
[WZ 11]
[This number not used]
WZ 13
Dictionaries. Encyclopedias
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 17
Atlases. Pictorial works
WZ 18
Classify here works about education in the history of medicine. Cf. W 18 History of medical education.
WZ 18.2
Educational materials
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Classify here educational materials, e.g., outlines, questions and answers, programmed instruction, computer-assisted instruction, etc., regardless of format. Classify textbooks, regardless of format, by subject.
WZ 22
Directories (Table G)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 22.1
General coverage (Not Table G)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 23
Academies, institutes, etc (Cutter from name of institute)
Classify here histories of institutes devoted to medical history; classify other institutes with the field
WZ 24
Archives (General)
Classify here general works on medical archives; classify archives from a specific institute with the institute.
Museums, exhibitions, etc.
WZ 27
WZ 28
Individual (Cutter from name of museum) (Table G)
[WZ 29]
[This number not used]
Classify handbooks on history of medicine in WZ 39
WZ 30
WZ 39
Handbooks. Resource guides
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 40
General works

History by Period, Locality, etc.

WZ 51
Ancient (before 500 C.E.)
Classify here all works regardless of locality or special group
WZ 54
Medieval (500-1450 C.E.)
Classify here all works regardless of locality or special group
WZ 55
Modern (1451 C.E.- ) (General)
Prefer classification by locality or special group
WZ 56
1451-1800 C.E.
WZ 59
1801 C.E.-
WZ 60
19th century
WZ 64
20th century
WZ 65
21st century
WZ 70
History (By locality) (Table G)
WZ 80
History (Special groups, general or not elsewhere classified)
For groups not listed below, prefer classification by locality WZ 70 when applicable.
WZ 80.5
Specific groups, A-Z
WZ 80.5.A8
Arabic and Islamic groups
WZ 80.5.B5
African Continental Ancestry Group
WZ 80.5.H6
WZ 80.5.H8
Hispanic Americans
WZ 80.5.I3
American Indians. Inuits
WZ 80.5.J3
WZ 80.5.O6
WZ 80.5.W5


WZ 100
Individual biography (Cutter from name of biographee)
Classify here biographies and bibliographies of persons in the medical field, allied health sciences, preclinical sciences and other related fields. Cf. WZ 294 Modern criticism and bibliographies of early works. Include here works about two persons or a family, e.g., the Mayos.
WZ 112
Collective biography (General or not specified below)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Classify here collective biographies in the fields of medicine, allied health, and the preclinical sciences by specialty. Classify collective biographies by period, locality, and ethnic or other special groups in WZ 121-150. Classify collective biographies of persons outside the field of medicine in the appropriate LC schedule.
WZ 112.5
By specialty, A-Z
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Classify collective biographies of military nurses in WZ 112.5.N8. Classify collective biographies of all other military health personnel in WZ 112.5.M4 regardless of specialty. Classify biography of individuals in WZ 100 regardless of specialty.
WZ 112.5.A2
Allied health personnel
WZ 112.5.A6
WZ 112.5.B3
WZ 112.5.C2
WZ 112.5.D3
WZ 112.5.D4
WZ 112.5.G2
WZ 112.5.G4
WZ 112.5.G9
WZ 112.5.I5
WZ 112.5.M3
Midwives. Nurse midwives
WZ 112.5.M4
Military health personnel
WZ 112.5.N4
Neurologists, neurosurgeons, etc.
WZ 112.5.N8
WZ 112.5.O2
WZ 112.5.O5
WZ 112.5.O7
Ophthalmologists, optometrists, etc.
WZ 112.5.O75
WZ 112.5.O8
WZ 112.5.P15
WZ 112.5.P2
WZ 112.5.P3
WZ 112.5.P4
WZ 112.5.P5
WZ 112.5.P6
WZ 112.5.R2
WZ 112.5.S8
Cf. WZ 112.5.M4 above.
Collective biography (By period)
Prefer specialty numbers above, or if not applicable, locality number below.
WZ 121
Ancient (before 500 C.E.)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 124
Medieval (500-1450 C.E.)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 126
1451-1800 C.E.
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 129
1801 C.E.-
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 132
19th Century
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 134
20th Century
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 135
21st Century
(Used for both monographs and serials)
WZ 140
Collective biography (By locality) (Table G)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Prefer classification by specialty if applicable.
WZ 150
Collective biography (Special groups)
(Used for both monographs and serials)
(e.g., African-American physicians, Women physicians, etc.)
Prefer classification by specialty if applicable.


WZ 220
Early Western manuscripts
Note that at NLM manuscripts produced before 1601 are classified in WZ 220, those produced after 1601 are classified as MS B (Manuscripts Books), MS C (Manuscripts Collections), or MS F (Manuscripts Oversize books).
WZ 225
Other early manuscripts

Early Printed Books

Works published before 1801 (or later if considered Americana) are not classed by subject; instead, they are arranged alphabetically by author under classification number for period during which they were printed. These numbers are used only for original publications. Reproductions are classified in WZ 290.
WZ 230
WZ 240
16th Century
WZ 250
17th Century
WZ 260
18th Century
For 19th century publications see separate schedule.


This number is used only for original publications. Reproductions are classified in WZ 290.
WZ 270
The closing dates given in the following table will be used to determine inclusion in this class.
North America
Canada, 1820
Caribbean, 1850
Central America, 1850
Mexico, 1850
United States (based on American Imprints Inventory)
Alabama, 1840
Alaska, 1890
Arizona, 1890
Arkansas, 1870
California, 1875
Colorado, 1876
Connecticut, 1820
District of Columbia, 1820
Delaware, 1820
Florida, 1860
Georgia, 1820
Hawaii, 1860
Idaho, 1890
Illinois (except Chicago), 1850
Chicago, 1871
Indiana, 1850
Iowa, 1860
Kansas, 1875
Kentucky, 1830
Louisiana, 1820
Maine, 1820
Maryland, 1820
Massachusetts, 1820
Michigan, 1850
Minnesota, 1865
Mississippi, 1840
Missouri, 1850
Montana, 1890
Nebraska, 1875
Nevada, 1890
New Hampshire, 1820
New Jersey, 1820
New Mexico, 1875
New York (except N.Y. City, Brooklyn, and Hudson River towns), 1850
Brooklyn, 1825
Hudson River towns, e.g., Poughkeepsie, Hudson, Troy, Albany, 1830
New York City, 1820
North Carolina, 1820
North Dakota, 1890
Ohio, 1840
Oklahoma, 1870
Oregon, 1875
Pennsylvania (except Philadelphia), 1830
Philadelphia, 1820
Rhode Island, 1820
South Carolina, 1820
South Dakota, 1890
Tennessee, 1840
Texas, 1860
Utah, 1890
Vermont, 1820
Virginia, 1820
Washington, 1875
West Virginia, 1830
Wisconsin, 1850
Wyoming, 1890
South America, 1850

Modern Versions and Commentaries of Early Works

WZ 290
Modern versions of early works
Classify here reprints, facsimiles, preservation microform, or translations of works originally published before 1801, and reprints of Americana originally published before the dates as listed at WZ 270. Do not include here 19th Century revised editions of 18th Century imprints. (Cf. 19th Century schedule for works and reprints of works published 1801-1913.)
WZ 292
Modern collections of early works
(Used for both monographs and serials)
Classify here collections (including those serially issued) which contain pre-1801 works of three or more authors. Classify works of only two authors in WZ 290.
WZ 294
Modern commentaries of early works and bibliographies of single titles (Cutter from work being criticized)
Classify here studies, commentaries, etc, of pre-1801 works including Americana unless they are largely the biography of one or two authors, in which case classify them in WZ 100. Classify in WZ 290 works that include the original text unless it is decidedly subordinate to the commentary. Classify here a bibliography of a single work. Cf. WZ 100 for bibliography of a single author's works.

Miscellany Relating to Medicine

WZ 305
Anecdotes. Humor. Light verse
Classify cartoons in WZ 336.
WZ 305.5
Surgery. Hospitalization
WZ 308
WZ 309
Folklore. Proverbs. Superstitions
For traditional medicine prefer classification by period, locality, or special group.
WZ 310
Quacks. Quackery
Classify here works the subject of which the author considers quackery. Works on special systems of therapeutics are classed in WB 890-962.
WZ 313
Biographical clinics (Diagnosis of diseases or psychological conditions of famous persons) (Cutter from name of biographee; collective, cutter from main entry)
WZ 320
Grave robbing. Resurrectionists
WZ 330
Medicine, as depicted in literature
(e.g., Medicine in the works of Rabelais)
Include here works on medicine in literature and art. Cf. WM 49 Literature as related to psychiatry. Cf. WZ 350 Literary works by health professionals.
WZ 331
Medicine, as depicted in art and film
Classify works on medicine in literature and art in WZ 330. Cf. WM 49 Art as related to psychiatry. Cf. WZ 350 Artistic works by health professionals.
[WZ 332]
[This number not used]
WZ 334
Emblems, insignia, etc.
WZ 336
Caricatures. Cartoons
Classify here caricatures and cartoons regardless of subject. Classify graphic novels in the form number for pictorial works in any NLM schedule.
WZ 340
Numismatics, philately, bookplates, etc.
WZ 345
Medical writing and publishing. Historiography
Classify works on specific subjects by subject.
WZ 348
Medical illustration (General)
WZ 350
Literary and artistic works by health professionals and associations
Cf. WZ 330-331 Medicine in literature and art.